Luxembourg arms

GRAND DUCHÉ DE LUXEMBOURG
(The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg)

Luxembourg flag

DE NASSAU (BOURBON OF PARMA)

Cour grand-ducal/Lola Velasco

Sovereign: Henri Grand Duke of Luxembourg (Betzdorf Castle, Luxembourg, April 16th, 1955).
Son of Jean Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1921) and Joséphine-Charlotte Princess of Belgium (1927).
Succeeds his father Jean Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1921), who abdicated on October 7th, 2000.
Inauguration: Chambre des Députés, Luxembourg City, October 7th, 2000.
Motto: Ich Dien (I Serve).
Religion: Roman Catholic.

Married (1981): Maria Teresa Mestre y Batista (1956)

Children:
  • Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume (Luxembourg City, November 11th, 1981). Married (2012): Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy (1984).
  • Félix (1984). Married (2013): Claire Lademacher (1985).
  • Louis (1986). Married (2006): Tessy Antony (1985). They have two sons: Gabriel (2006) and Noah (2007)
  • Alexandra (1991)
  • Sébastien (1992)




  • Titles:
    Until July 28th, 1987, the Grand Duke of Luxembourg was titled Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon of Parme, Count palatine of the Rhine, Count of Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Viscount of Hammerstein, Lord of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein. After this date the Grand Duke abandoned the title Prince of Bourbon of Parme. Since 1987 the dynasty's name is just Nassau. The eldest son is Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, crown prince of Nassau. The other members are Prince(ss) of Luxembourg and Nassau. Since 27 November 2004 the wife of Prince Robert of Luxembourg as well as their descendants, and the descendants of Prince Jean of Luxembourg were given the style and title of "Royal Highness, Prince(ss) de Nassau. On 3 February 2006 the dynasty's name was changed into "de Nassau". The wife and children of Prince Louis of Luxembourg carry the name de Nassau, without styles or titles.

    Succession:
    The throne is hereditary in the Nassau family and is given through in straight male line according to the right of the first-born male. If there are no male heirs in straight line anymore, the throne is given to the male descendants of another branche. If there is no male heir anymore in all branches, the throne goes according to the right of the first born to the female descendance of the reigning dynasty. Afterwards the succession continues in male line. Princes are not allowed to marry without permission of the sovereign, as otherwise they will loose their rights to the throne, and their titles.



    Postal address:
    Palais Grand-Ducal
    17, rue du Marché-aux-Herbes
    1728 Luxembourg
    Luxembourg

    Residences:
    Since 1890 the Grandducal Palace in Luxembourg-City is the official residence of the Grand Duke, and is used for official engagements. Previously it was used as townhall and as residence of the governor of Luxembourg. The Grand Duke and Grand Duchess reside at Berg Castle in Colmar-Berg. This castle was bought by King Willem II of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, in 1845. In 1891 it was bought by Grand Duke Adolph I. The castle became property of the Luxemburg state in 1934. Since the castle was made available to the grandducal family. It is, according to the constitution, the residence of the reigning Grand Duke. Fischbach Castle was bought by King Willem II in 1850, and also this castle was bought by Grand Duke Adolph I in 1891. It is still private property of the family. The present Grand Duke Henri lived here with his family from 1987 to 2002. After becoming a Grand Duke he moved to Berg Castle. Fischbach Castle is since 2002 the residence of Grand Duke Jean. For more information: Résidences.



    History
    Luxembourg was founded in the 2nd half of the 10th century and since there were many reigning houses. The House of Ardennes died out in 1336 and Luxemburg came to the House of Limburg. The county of Luxembourg became a duchy and was sold to Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy in 1443. In 1477 it came to the Habsburg Empire. In 1795 it became a department of France and in 1815 it was promoted to a grand duchy as a part of the new Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 1830 it lost half the grand duchy to the new Kingdom of Belgium. King Willem II gave the grand duchy constitutions in 1841 and 1848. King Willem III made his brother Prince Hendrik stadtholder of Luxembourg in 1850, which he stayed until his death in 1879. Stadtholder Hendrik reached that Luxembourg after the liquidation of the German Alliance in 1867 became an independent state.

    Until 1890 Luxembourg was in Dutch hands. As the Salian law was in force in Luxembourg, after the death of King Willem III the throne of Luxemburg was given to Adolph Duke of Nassau, from the Walramian branch of the House of Nassau. In 1866 the Prussian King Wilhelm I had driven him away from the duchy of Nassau, and he had been stadtholder of Luxembourg since 1879. In 1905 Adolph died and was followed by his son Guillaume IV who already died in 1912. Guillaume IV only had six daughters from his marriage to Maria Anna Princess of Braganca. In 1907 the Salian Law was abolished and thus his eldest daughter Marie Adelaïde became the new Grand Duchess. In World War I she was (wrongly) accused of pro-German sympathies. She was forced to give up her throne in 1919 and died in 1924. After Luxembourg almost had become a republic, it was clear that her sister Charlotte was willing to become the new Grand Duchess and soon married Prince Felix of Bourbon of Parma. In World War II she fled to Portugal and from there to England. Her husband Felix and her son Jean served in the allied army. Grand Duchess Charlotte abdicated in 1964 in favour of her oldest son Jean, and died in 1985. Grand Duke Jean in 1953 married Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium. Their oldest son Henri since March 4th 1998 was the lieutenant-représentant of Luxembourg (regent). He became the Grand Duke on October 7th, 2000.

    The Grand Dukes of Luxembourg
    Willem I (1772-1843) 1815-abd. 1840
    Willem II (1792-1849) 1840-1849
    Willem III (1817-1890) 1849-1890
    Adolph I (1817-1905) 1890-1905
    Guillaume IV (1852-1912) 1905-1912
    Maria Anna (1861-1942) Regent: 1908-1912
    Marie Adélaïde (1894-1924) 1912-abd. 1919
    Charlotte (1896-1985) 1919-abd. 1964
    Jean (1921- ) 1964-abd. 2000
    Henri (1955- ) 2000-