Last modified: 12 January 2021
The state is known as Saltanat ‘Umän in its national language. This means the Sultanate of Oman. The country is being reigned by the Al Bu Said dynasty.
For many centuries the Omani peninsula was controlled by several Iranian dynasties: Achaemenid, Parthians, Sassanids and Buyyids, and in between also by the Qarmatians. Between 1053 and 1154 Oman was part of the Great Seljuk Empire, until the Nabhani dynasty took control and ruled until 1470. The Portuguese conquered Muscat on 1 April 1515 and ruled the area until 26 January 1650, in between short rules by the Ottomans and Nabhani. Then the Yarubid Imamate recaptured Muscat. The Al-Said dynasty was founded in 1733 and some time later Ahmad ibn Said al Said was elected Sultan of Muscat. He was elected Imam in 1744.
He died in 1783, which lead to division of the family into two main lines. The line of Sultan ibn Ahmad al-Said controlled the maritime state, and the Qais branche ruled the Al Batinah and Ar Rustaq areas. The sultanate expanded and had possessions in Persia and Zanzibar. Annother succession quarrel in 1856 led to the division in 1861 into two separate principalities: Zanzibar and Muscat and Oman. Quarrels continued ever since. Oman was a British protectorate between 1891 and 1971. In 1970 Qaboos bin Said al-Said ousted his father and has since tried to modernise the country. Oman got its first written constitution in November 1996.
The current sovereign is Haitham bin Tariq Al Said, Sultan of Oman. He was born on 13 October 1954 or 11 October 1955.
He is the son of Sayyed Tariq bin Taimur Al Said (1920-1980) and his first wife Shawana bint Hamud bin Ahmad Al Busaidi(yah).
Sultan Haitham succeeded his cousin Sayyed Qaboos bin Said Al-Said, Sultan of Oman (1940-2020), who died on 10 January 2020.
He was named the new Sultan one day after the death of his cousin, on 11 January 2020, and took the oath on the same day.
The Sultan is a Muslim
Marriage and descendants
Sultan Haitham married Sayyida Ahad bint Abdullah bin Hamad Al Busaidi(yah).
- Sayyid Theyazin bin Haitham (1990)
- Sayyid Bilarab bin Haitham (1995)
- Sayyida Thuraya bint Haitham
- Sayyida Omaima bint Haitham
Heir to the throne
The heir to the throne of Oman is Crown Prince Sayyid Theyazin bin Haitham Al-Said. He was born in Muscat, Oman, on 21 August 1990. His name is sometimes spelled as Dhi Yazan.
He was appointed the Crown Prince on 12 January 2021.
Diwan of the Royal Court
Royal Palace of Muscat
Muscat PC 113
The Sultanate of Oman is an independent Arab Islamic fully sovereign state. Oman is an hereditary Sultanate. The Sultan is head of state and is the supreme commander of the armed forces. He is inviolable and must be respected and his orders must be obeyed. The Sultan is the symbol of national unity as well as its guardian and defender.
Until January 2021 within three days after the position of Sultan becomes vacant, the ruling family council had to determine who would succeed to the throne. In case they didn’t agree, the Defence Council should confirm the appointment of the person designated by the Sultan in his letter to the family council. Before exercising his powers the sultan has to swear an oath at a joint session of the Oman and Defence Councils.
The Sultan and the Crown Prince must be a male descendant of Sultan Turki bin Said bin Sultan, as well as Muslim, mature, of sound mind and a legitimate son of Omani Muslim parents. On 11 January 2020, Sultan Haitham issued a new basic law outlining a revised succession plan and creating the role of Crown Prince. Under Article 5 of the new Fundamental Law, the Sultanic throne is passed on to the eldest of his sons, then to the eldest of the latter’s sons, and so forth.
The Sultan is Sultan Sayyed … (personal name) bin … (father’s name), Sultan of Oman and Dependencies, and is styled His Majesty. Before 1970 the title of the Sultan was Sultan of Muscat and Oman. The male descendants of Sultan Faisal bin Turki in male line are Sayyed … (personal name) bin … (father’s name), and are styled His Highness. The female descendants of Sultan Faisal bin Turki in male line are Sayyed … (personal name) bint … (father’s name), and are styled Her Highness. Male descendants of previous sultans in male line are Sayyed … (personal name) bin … (father’s name). Female descendants of previous sultans in male line are Sayyed … (personal name) bint … (father’s name). More distant family members are Sayyed … (personal name) bin(t) … (father’s name) as-Said.
The Sultan of Oman owns several heavy guarded properties in Seeb, Mutrah, Barka, Manah, Sohar and Salalah.
The Sultans of Oman
|Sayyed Qaboos bin Said Al-Said (1940-2020)||1970-2020|
|Haitham bin Tariq Al Said (1955-)||2020-|