Last modified: 29 November 2020

The country

The state is formally known as Perak Darul Ridzuan, but usually called Perak.

The area of Perak has been inhabited since prehistoric times. After the fall of the Malacca Sultanate the eldest son of the last Sultan of Malacca, Raja Muzaffar Shah, fled the Portuguese and established his own dynasty in Perak in 1528. In the 17th century the Dutch built defensive forts at the mouth of the Perak River and on Pulau Pangkor, but Perak never acknowledged the Dutch presence. The British prevented Siam from annexing Perak in 1820. The Sultan of Perak had to accept a British resident in 1874, however the first Resident was killed already in 1875. Sultan Abdullah was exiled to the Seychelles after the Perak War of 1876. The British installed a new ruler. In 1896 Perak became part of the Federated Malay States, and in 1948 part of the Malayan Union. Perak became independent of the British in 1957 and are a member of Malaysia since 1963. It is the fourth largest state of Malaysia.


The current sovereign is Nazrin Shah, 35th Sultan of Perak. He was born at Penang, Malaysia, on 27 November 1956. He had been installed as Crown Prince (Raja Muda) by his father on 15 April 1984.

He is the son of Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah, 34th Sultan of Perak (1928-2014) and his wife Tuanku Bainun binti Mohamad Ali.


Sultan Nazrin Shah succeeded his father Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah, 34th Sultan of Perak after his death on 28 May 2014.

He was proclaimed the new Sultan of Perak on 29 May 2014.

He was regent of Perak from 26 April 1989 to 25 April 1994, when his father was the King of Malaysia.

He was elected the deputy Yang Di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia on 14 October 2016. He was installed on 13 December 2016 for a five-year-term. He as the acting Yang Di-Pertuan Agong during the medical leave of Sultan Muhammad V from 2 November 2018 to 31 December 2018, and again after the abdication of Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan as the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong on 6 January 2019. On 24 January 2019 he was re-elected as the Deputy King for a new 5-year-term starting on 31 January 2019.

Other details

The motto of Perak is Perak AmanJaya.

The Sultan is a Muslim.

Marriage and descendants

Sultan Nazrin Shah is married to Zara Salim Davidson (born 1973) since 2007.

Their children:

  • Raja Azlan Muzaffar Shah (born 2008). He is the Raja Kechil Besar since 20 June 2014.
  • Raja Nazira Safya Shah (born 2011).

Heir to the throne

The heir to the throne of Perak is Raja Ja’afar ibni Almarhum. He was born at Taiping Hospital, Taiping, Perak, on 26 September 1941.

He is the son of Raja Dato’ Musa ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Abdulaziz (1919-1983) and his first wife Cik Puan Mariam binti Encik Abdullah (born 1925).

He was elected the heir apparent (Raja Muda) on 20 June 2014. He was sworn in as Raja Muda of Perak at Istana Iskandariah, Bukit Chandan, Kuala Kangsar, on 1 July 2014.

He married first in 1973 Raja Dato Sri Nur Mahani binti Raja Haji Shahar Shah (1942-2017). He married secondly in 2002 Cik Puan Hazleza binti Ishak (1976-2002). He married thirdly in 2019 Raja Nazhatul Shima (born 1952).

He has children by his first wife:

  • Raja Shah Asman (born 1974),
  • Raja Nor Azwina (born 1976). Raja Nor Azwina is married since 2013 to Christopher Daud Grant.

Postal address

Istana Iskandariah
Kuala Kangsar


Perak is a constitutional monarchy with a constitutional hereditary ruler. The sovereign shall be chosen and appointed by the Royal Council (Dewan Negara). He shall be a descendant acknowledged to be legitimately and lawfully begotten of the body, flesh and blood of the Eighteenth Sultan who shall be a son, grandson, great grandson and so on of the male line, first one generation after another until the last. The successor’s mother should preferably be of royal birth. The heir apparent must be proclaimed Sultan before the death ruler is buried. After a sovereign is appointed and installed he will appoint the Raja Muda (heir apparent) and Raja Di Hilir (heir presumptive) on advice of the council. Next in rank, and in line of succession, are four titled Rajas (Raja-raja Bergelar): the Raja Kecil Besar, the Raja Kecil Sulong, the Raja Kecil Tengah and the Raja Kecil Bongsu. On the death or promotion of an existing titleholder, the holder of the next most senior title, assumes a higher rank among the Raja-raja Bergelar, but won’t receive a different title.


The ruler is titled Duli Yang Maha Mulia Maulana Paduka Sri Tuanku dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, and is styled His Royal Highness. His principal royal consort is Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Perempuan, styled Her Royal Highness. His principal non-royal consort is Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Permusairi, and styled Her Royal Highness. The heir apparent is titled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Muda, Wakil us-Sultan, Wazir ul- Azam Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, and is styled His Highness. His royal consort is Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Puan Besar Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, and styled Her Highness. His non-royal consort is Yang Teramat Mulia Cik Puan Besar. The heir presumptive is Duli Yang Amat Mulia Raja di-Hiler. His royal consort is Duli Yang Amat Mulia Raja Puan Muda, and styled Her Highness. His non-royal consort is Yang Amat Mulia Cik Puan Muda. The regent of Perak is Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Pemangku Raja Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, and styled His Highness. The junior wives of a ruling prince, heir apparent and other princes are Yang Mulia Cik … (personal name) binti … (father’s title and name). Other male members of the family in male line are Yang Mulia Raja … (personal name) bin Raja … (father’s name), and other female members of the family in male line are Yang Mulia Raja … (personal name) binti Raja … (father’s name).

The Sultans of Perak

Yusuf Sharifuddin Muzaffar Shah(-1887)1877/1886-1887
Idris Shah I (1849-1916)1887-1916
Abdul Jalil (1879-1918)1916-1918
Iskandar Shah al-Kaddasullah (1881-1938)1918-1938
Abdul Aziz al-Mutasim Billah Shah Nikmatullah (1887-1948)1938-1948
Yusuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah (1890-1963)1948-1963
Idris Iskandar Shah II (1924-1984)1963-1984
Azlan Shah (1928-2014)1984-2014
Nazrin Shah (1956- )2014-


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