Last modified: 29 November 2020
The state is known as Terengganu Darul Iman, but is usually called Terengganu.
The area that is now Terengganu was mentioned for the first time in the early 6th century by Chinese merchants. It was the first Malay state to receive Islam. The area became a vassal state of the Sultanate of Malacca. In 1724 Terengganu became an independent sultanate. The first sultan was Tun Zainal Abidin, a brother of a former sultan of Johor. The influence of Johor on Terengganu remained big during the 18th century.
Terengganu became a vassal state of Siam in the 19th century. The power was transferred to Great Britain in 1909. During World War II the Japanese occupied Terengganu, and sovereignty was given back to Siam (Thailand). In 1945 the British control was reestablished. In 1948 Terengganu became a member of the Federation of Malaya, in 1957 of Malaya, and in 1963 of Malaysia.
The current sovereign is Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, 18th Sultan of Terengganu. He was born at the Istana Al-Muktafi, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, on 22 January 1962. He had been Crown Prince since 16 November 1979.
He is the son of Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah, 16th Sultan of Terengganu (1930-1998) and his second wife Datuk Sri Sharifa Nong Fatima binti Sayyid Abdullah née Lisa Assegaff (1939-).
Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin succeeded his father after his death on 14 May 1998. He was proclaimed the new Sultan on 16 May 1998.
The installation took place at the Istana Maziah, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, on 26 May 1998. He was crowned there on 4 March 1999.
He was the deputy head of state of Malaysia as of 27 April 1999. He served as acting Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 8 October 2001 to 12 December 2001 following the illness and death of the then Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. He was re-appointed the Deputy head of state on 13 December 2001 until 12 December 2006. On 3 November 2006 he was elected the new King (Yang di-Pertuan Agong) of Malaysia. His five year term started on 13 December 2006, and ended on 12 December 2011. He was formally installed on 26 April 2007.
The Sultan is a Muslim (Sunni).
Marriage and descendants
Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin is married to Sultana Nur Zahirah (born 1973) née Rozita Adil Bakeri since 1996.
- Tengku Nadhira Zahra (born 1996)
- Tengku Muhammad Ismail (born 1998)
- Tengku Muhammad Mua’az (born 2000)
- Tengku Fatimat uz-Zahra (born 2002)
Heir to the throne
The heir to the throne of Terengganu is Tengku Muhammad Ismail. He was born at the Istana Nur Nadhira, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, on 1 March 1998. He was appointed as heir apparent on 12 January 2006. He was Regent of Terengganu from 12 December 2006 to 12 December 2011. Because of his age a three-member Regency Advisory Council was established.
The sultan is the ruler and fountain head of all authority of government in the State and Territory of Terengganu. He is also the Head of the religion of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state.
The sultan and his successors must be a Terengganu Malay male and a blood descendant of the sultans ruling the state of Terengganu. They have to be descendants of Sultan Zainal Abidin I. One of the sons of the sultan will be appointed the heir to the throne.
The sultan is titled Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Besar Terengganu Dar ul-Iman, and is styled His Royal Highness. His royal consort is Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tengku Ampuan Besar, and is styled Her Royal Highness. His non-royal consort is Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Inche’ Puan, and is styled Her Highness. The heir apparent is Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Yang di-Pertuan Muda Terengganu Dar ul-Iman, and is styled His Highness. His royal consort is Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Puan Muda Terengganu Dar ul-Iman, and is styled Her Highness. His non-royal consort is Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Inche’ Puan Muda Terengganu Dar ul-Iman, and is styled Her Highness. The regent is Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Pemangku Raja Terengganu Dar ul-Iman, and is styled His Highness. Other male members of the family in male line are Yang Mulia Tengku … (personal name) bin … (father’s title and name), and other female members of the family in male line are Yang Mulia Tengku … (personal name) binti … (father’s title and name). The junior wives of a sultan, the heir apparent and other princes are Yang Mulia Inche’ … (personal name) binti … (father’s title and name). Senior male members of the family usually receive a princely title of honour in addition to those by right of birth.
The Sultans of Terengganu
|Tun Zainal Abidin||1724-1733|
|Mansur Riayat Shah Zillullah (before 1726-1794)||1733-1794|
|Zainal-Abidin II (1744-1808)||1794-1808|
|Ahmad Shah I (-1830)||1808-1830|
|Mansur Shah II (-1837)||1831-1837|
|Muhammad Shah I (1821-1840)||1837-1839|
|Mahmud Mustafa Shah||1876|
|Ahmad II Muazzam Shah (1839-1881)||1876-1881|
|Haji Zainal-Abidin III Muazzam Shah (1866-1918)||1881-1918|
|Haji Muhammad II Muazzam Shah (1888-1956)||1918-1920|
|Sulaiman Badr ul-Alam Shah (1895-1942)||1920-1942|
|Ali Shah (1914-1996)||1942-1945|
|Ismail Nasiruddin (1906/07-1979)||1945-1979|
|Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah (1930-1998)||1979-1998|
|Mizan Zainal Abidin (1962- )||1998-|