Lost monarchies

Since the 19th century many monarchies disappeared all over the world. Other territories were part of a monarchy and have become independent since.

Africa

Within the republics in Africa, there are still a lot of traditional, sometimes officially recognised, monarchs with often a lot of power. These are however not independent monarchies.

CountryYearLast monarchFate
Ashanti1957Prempeh II, King of the AshantiPart of the Republic of Ghana
Burundi1966Ntare V, King of BurundiRepublic
Central African Empire1979Bokassa I, Emperor of Central AfricaRepublic
Dahomey1904Possibly Agoli-agboFrench protectorate since 1894, colony as French Dahomey 1904
Egypt1953Fuad II, King of EgyptRepublic
Ethiopia1974Haile Selassie I, Emperor of EthiopiaRepublic
Gambia1970Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Ghana1963Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Kenya1964Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Libya1969Idris I, King of LibyaRepublic
Madagascar (Imerina)1897Ranavalona III, Queen of MadagascarFrench protectorate
Malawi1966Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Mauritius1992Elizabeth II, Queen of the United KingdomRepublic
Oyo1896Adeyemi I AlowoloduPart of Nigeria, Benin
Rhodesia1970Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic, now Zimbabwe
Rwanda1962Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, King of RwandaRepublic
Sierra Leone1971Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
South Africa1961Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Tanganyika1962Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic, now part of Tanzania
Tunisia1957Muhammad VIII al-Amin (Lamine Bey), King of TunisiaRepublic
Uganda1963Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Zanzibar1964Sir Jamshid bin Abdullah Al Busaid, Sultan of ZanzibarRepublic, now part of Tanzania
Zulu1897Dinizulu kaCetshwayoIncorporated into Natal, annexed by the British

Asia

Furthermore South Yemen (now Yemen) was created out of a whole list of sultanates, emirates and sheikhdoms. Also India is a combination of tens of much smaller monarchies. The same counts for Indonesia, and Malaysia. I have added a few of the more known ones.

CountryYearLast monarchFate
Aceh1903Muhammad Daud SyahPart of the Dutch East Indies
Afghanistan1973Mohammed Zahir Shah, King of AfghanistanRepublic
Bali1908Dewa Agung Jambe IIPart of the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia
Burma1885Thibaw, King of BurmaAnnexed by the British
Ceylon1972Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic, now Sri Lanka
China1912Puyi, Emperor of ChinaRepublic
Hejaz and Nejd1925/1932Ali bin Hussein, King of Hejaz, Grand Sharif of MeccaPart of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Iran1979Mohammad Reza, Shah of IranRepublic
Iraq1958Faisal II, King of Iraq (killed)Republic
Korea1910Sunjong, Emperor of KoreaAnnexed by Japan
Kurdistan1924/25Mahmud Barzanji, King of KurdistanPart of the Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration
Laos1975Sisavang Vatthana, King of LaosRepublic
Maldives1968Muhammad Fareed Didi, Sultan of the MaldivesRepublic
Mongolia1924Bogd Khan, 8th Jebtsundamba KhutughtuMongolian People’s Republic
Mughal Empire1857Bahadur Shah II, Mughal Emperor, King of DelhiUnder control of the British East India Company
Nepal2008Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of NepalRepublic
Pakistan1956Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Pontianak1950Syarif Hamid Alkadrie, Sultan Hamid IIPart of the Republic of Indonesia
Sarawak1946Charles Vyner Brooke, Rajah of SarawakBritish Military Administration, now Malaysia
Sikkim1975Palden Thondup Namgyel, 12th Chogyal of SikkimPart of the Republic of India
Syria1920Faisal bin Al-Hussein, King of SyriaPart of the French Mandate
Tibet1951Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai LamaAutonomous region of China
Vietnam1945Bao Dai, Emperor of Vietnam, he was chief of state of Vietnam 1949-1955Republic
Yemen (North Yemen)1962Muhammad al-Badr, King and Imam of YemenRepublic
Yogyakarta1950Hamengkubuwono IX, Sultan of YogyakartaPart of the Republic of Indonesia

Europe

CountryYearLast MonarchFate
Albania1943Vittorio Emanuele III, King of ItalyRepublic
Anhalt1918Joachim Ernst, Duke of AnhaltPart of the Republic of Germany
Austria1918Karl I, Emperorof AustriaRepublic
Bade (Baden)1918Friedrich, Grand Duke of BadePart of the Republic of Germany
Bavaria (Bayern)1918Ludwig III, King of BavariaPart of the Republic of Germany
Berg1813Napoleon Louis Bonaparte, Grand Duke of BergPart of the Kingdom of Prussia
Bohemia1918 Karel III, King of Bohemia (Emperorof Austria)Czechoslovak Republic
Brunswick1918Ernst August, Duke of BrunswickPart of the Republic of Germany
Bulgaria1946Simeon II, King (Tsar) of BulgariaRepublic
Croatia1943Tomislav II, King of Croatia (Prince Aimone, 4th Duke of Aosta)Part of the Republic of Yugoslavia
Finland1918Fredrik Kaarle, King of Finland, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse. He never took up the throneRepublic
France (Kingdom)1848Louis-Philippe, King of the FrenchRepublic
France (Empire)1870Napoléon III, Emperor of the FrenchRepublic
Germany 1918Wilhelm II, Emperor of GermanyRepublic
Greece1973Constantine II, King of the Hellenes, already left the country 1967Republic
Hannover 1866Georg V, King of HannoverPart of the German Empire
Hesse(n) and by Rhine1918Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse and by RhinePart of the Republic of Germany
Hesse(n)-Kassel1866Friedrich Wilhelm II, Elect of Hesse-KasselPart of the Kingdom of Prussia
Hohenzollern1849Karl Anton, Fürst von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Konstantin, Fürst von Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Hungary1918Karl IV, King of Hungary (Emperor of Austria)
Under Miklós Horthy Hungary remained a monarchy until 1946, but didn’t have a King.
Republic
Iceland1944Christian X, King of DenmarkRepublic
Imereti (Georgia)1810Solomon II, King of ImeretiPart of the Russian Empire
Ireland1949George VI, King of the United KingdomRepublic
Italy1946Umberto II, King of ItalyRepublic
Lippe1918Leopold IV, Reigning Prince of LippePart of the Republic of Germany
Lithuania1918Mindaugas II, King of Lithuania, Wilhelm Duke of UrachRepublic of Lithuania
Malta1974Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Mecklenburg-Schwerin1918Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-SchwerinPart of the Republic of Germany
Mecklenburg-Strelitz1918Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (regent)Part of the Republic of Germany
Modena and Reggio1859Francesco V, Duke of Modena, Reggio and GuastallaPart of the Kingdom of Italy
Montenegro1918Nikola I, King of MontenegroPart of the Kingdom of Serbia
Mukhrani (Georgia)1801unknownPart of the Russian Empire
Naples1815Ferdinand IV, King of NaplesUnited with Sicily in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Nassau1866Adolf Duke of NassauPart of the Kingdom of Prussia
Oldenburg1918Friedrich August II, Grand Duke of OldenburgPart of the Republic of Germany
Ottoman Empire1922Mehmed VI Vahideddin, 36th Sultan of the Ottoman EmpireRepublic of Turkey
Parma1859Robert I, Duke of Parma and PiacenzaPart of the Kingdom of Italy
Poland1918VacantRepublic
Portugal1910Manuel II, King of PortugalRepublic
Prussia1918Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany, King of PrussiaPart of the Republic of Germany
Reuss-Gera1918Heinrich XXVII, Reigning Prince Reuss of GeraPart of the Republic of Germany
Reuss-Greiz1918Heinrich XXIV, Reigning Prince Reuss of GreizPart of the Republic of Germany
Romania1947Michael I, King of RomaniaRepublic
Russia1917Nicholas II, Emperor (Tsar) of RussiaRepublic
Sardinia1861Vittorio Emanuele II, King of SardiniaPart of the Kingdom of Italy
Saxe-Altenburg1918Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-AltenburgPart of the Republic of Germany
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha1918Carl Eduard, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPart of the Republic of Germany
Saxe-Meiningen1918Bernhard III, Duke of Saxe-MeiningenPart of the Republic of Germany
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach1918Wilhelm Ernst, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachPart of the Republic of Germany
Saxony (Sachsen)1918Friedrich August II, King of SaxonyPart of the Republic of Germany
Schaumburg-Lippe1918Adolf II, Reigning Prince of Schaumburg-LippePart of the Republic of German Empire
Schleswig-Holstein1864Christian IX, King of Denmark, Duke of Schleswig-HolsteinPart of the Germany
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt1918Günther Victor, Duke of Schwarzburg-RudolstadtPart of the Republic of Germany
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen1918Günther Victor, Duke of Schwarzburg-SondershausenPart of the Republic of Germany
Serbia1918Peter I, King of the SerbiansPart of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1929 Yugoslavia)
Tuscany1860Ferdinand IV Grand Duke of TuscanyPart of the Kingdom of Italy
Two Sicilies 1861Francesco II, King of the Two SiciliesPart of the Kingdom of Italy
Ukraine1918Pavlo Skoropadskyj, Hetman of UkraineRepublic of the Ukraine
Waldeck and Pyrmont1918Friedrich, Reigning Prince of Waldeck and PyrmontPart of the Republic of Germany
Württemberg1918Wilhelm II, King of WürttembergPart of the Republic of Germany
Yugoslavia1945King Peter II of YugoslaviaRepublic

Oceania

CountryYearLast monarchFate
Fiji1987/2012Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, 1987-2012 recognised as Tui Viti, the traditional Queen of FijiRepublic
Manu’a Islands1904Tui Manu’a ElisalaUS protectorate of American Samoa
Tahiti1880Pomare V, King of TahitiAnnexation by France

Americas

CountryYearLast monarchFate
Barbados2021Elizabeth II, Queen of the United KingdomRepublic
Brazil1889Pedro II, Emperor of BrazilRepublic
Guyana1970Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic
Haiti1859Faustin I, Emperor of HaitiRepublic
Hawaii1893Lili’uokalani, Queen of the Hawaiian IslandsRepublic, later part of the USA
Mexico1867Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico (executed)Republic
Suriname1975Juliana, Queen of the NetherlandsRepublic
Trinidad and Tobago1976Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom Republic

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