Last modified: 28 November 2020
The state is formally known as Pahang Darul Makmur, but usually called Pahang.
In the 8th and 9th century Pahang was part of the Srivijaya Empire. After its collapse it became part of the Majapahit Empire, Siam and finally the Sultanate of Malacca. For most of the 16th century the Portuguese, Dutch, Johor and Aceh fought over the area. In the mid 17th century Pahang came under the rule of Johor. However there were Sultans of Pahang, descending from the royal dynasties of Malacca and Johor ruling from 1470 almost continuously. In the second half of the 19th century Pahang was brought under control of the British. In 1896 Pahang became part of the Federated Malay States, in 1948 of the Federation of Malaya, and finally of Malaysia in 1963. Pahang is the third largest state in Malaysia.
The current sovereign is Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah, 6th Sultan of Pahang. He was born at the Istana Mangga Tunggal, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia, on 30 July 1959. He had been Crown Prince (Tengku Mahkota) since 1 July 1975.
He is the son of Haji Ahmad Shah ibni Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Shah, 5th Sultan of Pahang (1930-2019) and his first wife Tengku Hajjah Afzan binti Tengku Muhammad of Terengganu (1932-1988).
Sultan Abdullah Shah succeeded his father Sultan Ahmad Shah (1930-2019) after his abdication on 15 January 2019, declared retroactively from 11 January 2019.
He was installed/crowned King of Malaysia on 30 July 2019 at the Throne Hall of the Istana Negara in Kuala Lumpur.
He was formally installed as Crown Prince on 23 October 1977 at the Istana Abu Bakar, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. He was regent of Pahang from 28 April 1979 to 26 April 1984 and again from 28 December 2016 to 12 January 2019. He was elected the 16th Yang-di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia on 24 January 2019, and began his five-year-term on 31 January 2019.
The motto of the rulers of Pahang is Ya alif lam. Tho ya qaf. The first part means The gentle one.
The Sultan is a Muslim.
Marriage and descendants
Tengku Abdullah bin Sultan has two wives. He married first in 1986 Tunku Hajjah Azizah Amina Maimuna Iskandariah binti Sultan Mahmud Iskandar al-Haj of Johor (born 1960). She was proclaimed the Tengku Ampuan of Pahang on 29 January 2019.
- Tengku Ahmad Iskandar Shah (1990-1990)
- Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah (born 1995)
- Tengku Muhammad Iskandar Ri’ayatuddin Shah (born 1997)
- Tengku Ahmad Ismail Muadzam Shah (born 2000)
- Tengku Puetri Afzan Aminah Hafizatullah (born 2000)
- Tengku Puteri Jihan Azizah Athiyatullah (born 2002)
He married secondly in 1991 Cik Puan Julia Aishah binti Abdullah Rais (born 1971).
- Tengku Puteri Iman Afzan (born 1992). She is married since 2018 to Tengku Abu Bakar Ahmad bin Tengku Arif Bendahara Tengku Abdullah. They have issue: Tengku Zayn Edin Shah (born 2019).
- Tengku Puteri Ilisha Ameera (born 1993)
- Tengku Puteri Ilyana (born 1997).
He also adopted a son:
- Tengku Amir Nasser Ibrahim (born 1986, adopted 1987) , son of Tengku Arif Bendahara Ibrahim and his third wife Czarina binti Abdullah. He married 2013 Puteri Suraiya Afzan Binti Mohamed Moiz. They have issue: Tengku Adam Ibrahim Shah (born 2015), Tengku Sulaiman Abdullah Shah (born 2018). He received the title Tengku Panglima Raja on 18 August 2019.
Heir to the throne
The heir to the throne of Pahang is Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah. He was born at the Tengku Uampuan Afzan Hospital, Pahang, Malaysia, on 17 September 1995.
He was granted the title of Tengku Panglima Besar on 18 June 2018. He was proclaimed the heir apparent (Tengku Mahkota) at the Istana Abu Bakar, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia, on 29 January 2019. Since 31 January 2019 he is the regent of Pahang.
Sultan Abu Bakar Palace
The sovereign and the heir of Pahang have to be Malays of royal blood and Muslim. They have to be descendants of Paduka Sri Baginda Sultan Sir Ahmad al-Mu’azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Bendahara Sri Maharaja Tun ‘Ali. Succession according to male primogeniture.
The ruler of Pahang is titled KeBawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Pahang Dar ul-Makmur, and is styled His Royal Highness. His royal consort is Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tengku Ampuan, and styled Her Royal Highness. The heir apparent (crown prince) is titled KeBawah Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Mahkota Pahang Dar ul- Makmur, and is styled His Highness. His royal consort is titled KeBawah Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Ampuan Mahkota Pahang Dar ul-Makmur, and styled Her Highness. The junior royal consort of the heir apparent is titled KeBawah Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Puan Pahang Dar ul-Makmur, and styled Her Highness. Non-royal consorts of a heir apparent is titled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Che’ Puan Bendahara. The heir presumptive is titled Yang Amat Mulia Tengku Muda Pahang Dar ul-Makmur, and styled His Highness. His royal consort is Yang Amat Mulia Tengku Puan Muda Pahang Dar ul-Makmur, and styled Her Highness. His non-royal consort is Yang Amat Mulia Che’ Puan Muda Pahang Dar ul-Makmur, and styled Her Highness. The regent of Pahang is titled Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Pemangku Raja Pahang Dar ul-Makmur, and styled His Highness. Other male members of the family in male line are Yang Mulia Tengku … (personal name) bin … (father’s title and name). Other female members of the family in male line are Yang Mulia Tengku … (personal name) binti … (father’s title and name). The junior wives of the ruler, the heir apparent and other princes are Yang Mulia Che’ … (personal name) binti … (father’s title and name).
The Sultans of Pahang
|Ahmad Muazzam Shah (1836-1914)||1863/1882-1914|
|Mahmud Shah (1868-1917)||1914-1917|
|Abu Bakar (1904-1974)||1932-1974|
|Ahmad Shah (1930-)||1974-2019|
|Abdullah Shah (1959-)||2019-|